Vitamin or vitamins, chemical necessary for normal growth and prevent certain diseases. Vitamins are contained in foods of both animal and vegetable origin, but are most abundant in fresh vegetables (spinach, chard, lettuce, carrots, beets, etc..) And fruit.
Classification of the vitamins are classified according to their ability to dissolve in fat (fat-soluble vitamins) or water (water-soluble vitamins). Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, are often consumed together with foods containing fat and because it can be stored in body fat, you need not take them every day. Water-soluble vitamins, eight in group B and vitamin C, can not be stored and therefore must be consumed frequently, preferably daily (except for certain B vitamins, as we shall see later).
Types of vitamins and their role in our body: Vitamins are involved in the formation of hormones, blood cells, nervous system chemicals and genetic material. The various vitamins are not chemically related, and most of them has a different physiological action. Usually act as catalysts, combined with proteins to create metabolically active enzymes in turn produce significant chemical reactions throughout the body. Without vitamins many of these reactions take longer to occur or cease altogether.
Vitamin A is a primary alcohol which derives pale yellow carotene.
The body gets vitamin A in two ways. One is manufacturing it from carotene, a precursor to vitamin found in vegetables such as carrots, broccoli, squash, spinach, cabbage and sweet potatoes. The other is absorbing and list of organisms that feed on plants. Vitamin A is found in milk, butter, cheese, egg yolk, liver and fish liver oil.
Excess vitamin A can interfere with growth, stop menstruation, damage red blood cells from the blood and cause skin rashes, headaches, nausea and jaundice.
Vitamins B: Also known under the name B-complex vitamins are fragile substances, soluble in water, several of which are especially important to metabolize carbohydrates or carbohydrates.
Thiamine or vitamin B1, is a colorless crystalline substance, acts as a catalyst in the metabolism of carbohydrates, allowing metabolize pyruvate and causing the release carbohydrate energy.
Vitamin B2 or riboflavin, thiamine like, acts as a coenzyme, ie, must be combined with a portion of another enzyme to be effective in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and particularly in the metabolism of proteins involved in oxygen transport. Also acts to maintain the mucous membranes.
Nicotinamide or vitamin B3, vitamin B complex whose structure complies with the amide of nicotinic acid or niacin, acts as coenzyme to release energy from nutrients. Also called
Pyridoxine or vitamin B6 is necessary for the absorption and metabolism of amino acids. It also acts in the use of body fat and the formation of red blood cells or erythrocytes.
Cobalamin or vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin, is a recently isolated vitamins. Is needed in minute quantities for the formation of nucleoproteins, proteins and red blood cells and nervous system function.
Other B vitamins folic acid or folacin is a coenzyme necessary for the formation of structural proteins and hemoglobin, and its failure in humans is very rare.
Vitamin C is important in the formation and maintenance of collagen, the protein that holds many body structures and represents a very important role in the formation of bones and teeth. It also promotes the absorption of iron from plant foods.
Vitamin D: Necessary for normal bone formation and retention of calcium and phosphorus in the body. It also protects the teeth and bones against the effects of low calcium intake, making more effective use of calcium and phosphorus.
Vitamin E: Found in vegetable oils, wheat germ, liver and green leafy vegetables .. This vitamin participates in the formation of red blood cells, muscle and other tissues and in preventing the oxidation of vitamin A and fats. It is found in vegetable oils, wheat germ, liver and green leafy vegetables.
Vitamin K is needed primarily for blood clotting. Supports the formation of prothrombin, an enzyme necessary for the production of fibrin coagulation. The richest sources of vitamin K are alfalfa and fish liver, used to make preparations at concentrations of this vitamin. Dietary sources include all green leafy vegetables, egg yolk, soybean oil (soy) and liver.
Diseases caused by lack of vitamins:
Vitamin A: One of the first failure symptoms is night blindness (difficulty in adapting to darkness). Other symptoms include excessive dry skin, lack of secretion of the mucous membrane, resulting in susceptibility to bacterial invasion, and dry eyes due to malfunction of the tear, a major cause of blindness in children in underdeveloped countries
Thiamine or vitamin B1 thiamine insufficiency causes beriberi, characterized by muscle weakness, inflammation of the heart and leg cramps and in severe cases, heart attack and death.
Riboflavin or vitamin B2: The failure of this vitamin may be complicated if there is lack of other B vitamins Your symptoms, not as defined as the lack of thiamine, are skin lesions, especially around the lips and nose, and sensitivity to light.
Niacin or nicotinic acid (vitamin B3): The failure produces pellagra, whose first symptom is a rash resembling a sunburn where skin is exposed to sunlight. Other symptoms include red, swollen tongue, diarrhea, mental confusion, irritability and, when it affected the central nervous system depression and mental disorders.
Pyridoxine or vitamin B6: Pyridoxine deficiency is characterized by alterations in the skin, cracks in the corners of the lips, tongue depapillated, seizures, dizziness, nausea, anemia and kidney stones (see lithiasis).
Cobalamin or vitamin B12 cobalamin insufficiency is often due to the inability of the stomach to produce a glycoprotein (intrinsic factor) that helps to absorb this vitamin. The result is pernicious anemia, with characteristic symptoms of poor production of red blood cells, defective synthesis of myelin (nerve sheath) and loss of epithelium (membranous covering) of the intestinal tract.
Vitamin C: Scurvy is the classic manifestation of severe deficiency of ascorbic acid. Its symptoms are due to the loss of the cementing action of collagen, and among them are bleeding, tooth loss and cellular changes in the bones of children.
Vitamin D: Bone Deformation Rickets may be the result of insufficient dietary intake of vitamin D, or from an insufficient supply of solar ultraviolet radiation
Vitamin K: Lack of this vitamin can cause slow clotting of blood